Chinese New Year Foods and the Symbolism Behind Them

The Symbolism and Cultural Significance of Chinese New Year Foods

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Updated on June 4, 2024

Dive deeper into the delicious traditions of Chinese New Year food! This festive season isn’t just about red envelopes and lion dances; it’s also a culinary journey filled with symbolism and cultural significance. From fish signifying abundance to dumplings representing prosperity, each bite explodes with flavour and meaning.

Get ready for a mouthwatering exploration of Chinese New Year food, where every dish tells a story and every meal brings loved ones together.

The Most Symbolic Chinese New Year Foods

Celebrate Chinese New Year with symbolic foods that represent luck, prosperity, and happiness. Mark the occasion with traditional dishes like fish, dumplings, whole chicken, spring rolls, Chinese New Year cake, and sweet rice balls.


Fish is always on my menu for Chinese New Year, symbolising surplus and wealth—something we all hope for in the coming year. Serving a whole fish with the head and tail intact promises a good start and finish to the year without missing any luck. This tradition has been a part of Lunar New Year celebrations for generations, reflecting the cultural significance of symbolic foods during this festive time.

In preparing fish for Chinese New Year, I focus on the presentation to ensure it embodies prosperity and abundance. The careful selection of fish types also plays a crucial role in bringing fortune-bringing sentiments into our homes. Opting for species like carp or catfish can amplify these wishes since their names in Chinese sound similar to words denoting profit and advantage. Sharing this dish with family signifies our shared hopes for wealth and success, making it more than just a meal; it’s an integral part of Spring Festival festivities aimed at ushering in a prosperous new year.


Dumplings, or jiaozi, hold a special place in Chinese New Year celebrations. These little pockets of goodness are believed to bring prosperity and wealth due to their resemblance to ancient Chinese money. Traditionally, a coin is wrapped inside one lucky dumpling, bringing good fortune to the person who finds it. They symbolise abundance and completeness. Eating dumplings during this festive time also represents family reunion and unity around the dining table.

The art of making dumplings is often passed down through generations as part of the Chinese New Year tradition. It’s an opportunity for families to come together, bond over cooking, and share stories while preparing these symbolic delicacies. Traditionally eaten on Lunar New Year’s Eve or Lunar New Year’s Day, dumplings play a significant role in ushering in luck and prosperity for the coming year.

Whole Chicken

Whole chicken symbolises wholeness and luck for the Chinese New Year. The word for chicken sounds like “prosperity” in Chinese, making it a popular dish during this festive time. Keeping the head and claws intact on the chicken represents reunion and rebirth, bringing auspicious meaning to the celebration. When preparing for Chinese New Year, including whole chicken in the feast signifies good luck and abundance for the coming year, enhancing the joy of family reunions during this special occasion.

Chinese New Year Cake

After indulging in the symbolism of whole chicken, let’s delve into another iconic Chinese New Year delicacy—Nian Gao or Chinese New Year Cake. This sweet and sticky rice cake is a traditional symbol of growth, progress, and reaching new heights. The word “Nian” in Nian Gao sounds like the word for “year,” signifying elevation with each passing year. As a traditional dish often prepared at home, it signifies family togetherness and unity during this auspicious time.

Many families enjoy steaming or pan-frying Nian Gao as a gesture of good luck and prosperity for the coming year. Intricately wrapped within the layers of this delightful treat are wishes for great fortune and abundance throughout the year ahead—making it not only delicious but also promising wealth and prosperity to all who indulge. Each bite is symbolic of climbing higher towards success, making it an integral part of our Lunar New Year festivities.

Spring Rolls

Spring rolls are a must-have during Chinese New Year. These crispy delights filled with vegetables, meat, and sometimes even prawns symbolise prosperity and wealth, as their shape resembles gold bars. In Chinese culture, they represent good fortune and the promise of a prosperous year ahead. The crispy texture signifies happiness and togetherness in the coming year.

The versatility of spring rolls makes them even more special during this festive time. They can be enjoyed fresh or fried, offering different textures that symbolise the variety of experiences one might encounter in the new year. These delicious treats truly capture the spirit of Chinese New Year by bringing luck, abundance, and joy to every celebratory meal.

Sweet Rice Balls

Sweet Rice Balls, also known as Tangyuan, are a traditional Chinese New Year dessert made from glutinous rice flour and sweet fillings such as sugar, sesame paste, or red bean paste. These round and sticky rice balls symbolise family togetherness and completeness. The round shape represents unity and harmony within the family. During this time of celebration, families gather to make these sweet treats together, enhancing the sense of togetherness ingrained in their symbolism.

Preparation involves shaping the dough into small balls before boiling them in water until they float to the surface. They are then served in a warm and sweet broth made with ginger and rock sugar. It is customary for families to enjoy Tangyuan together during the Lantern Festival, which marks the end of Chinese New Year celebrations. This delicious dessert brings sweetness to gatherings as families bond over shared traditions throughout this festive period.

The Meanings Behind These Foods

Discover the symbolic meanings of these foods. Each dish represents different aspects of luck and prosperity, contributing to the richness of Chinese New Year celebrations.


Fish is a quintessential Chinese New Year food, symbolising prosperity and surplus for the year ahead. Serving fish during this celebration represents an abundance of wealth and good fortune, as the Chinese word for fish sounds like “surplus.”

Additionally, dumplings, or jiaozi, are another symbolic food associated with prosperity. Their shape resembles ancient Chinese money, signifying wealth and financial success. Consuming dumplings is believed to bring forth economic prosperity and affluence into one’s life. Whole chicken also holds significance in this regard, as its pronunciation in Mandarin signifies both good luck and abundance—essential elements for prospering in the coming year.


Certain Chinese New Year foods are believed to usher in good fortune and abundance. Fish exemplifies this, symbolising surplus and wealth for the year ahead. The word for fish sounds like “surplus” in Chinese, emphasising the desire for abundance and affluence.

Dumplings, resembling ancient Chinese money, signify hopes for increased wealth and prosperity. Oranges, tangerines, kumquats, and pomelos are often exchanged as gifts due to their association with wealth and happiness, enhancing the festive spirit with their golden hues and rich symbolism.


Chinese New Year is steeped in traditions and symbolism, with various foods believed to bring good luck and fortune for the year ahead. Fish is a must-have dish, symbolising surplus and abundance. Dumplings (jiaozi) are widely consumed during this time, representing prosperity and wealth due to their resemblance to ancient Chinese money. Additionally, noodles hold great importance as they signify longevity when eaten uncut, emphasising the hope for a long and healthy life. The exchange of oranges and tangerines further symbolises good luck and happiness, reinforcing the positive atmosphere of the celebrations.

Family Togetherness

Chinese New Year is a time for family togetherness, and traditional foods play a significant role in bringing everyone together. The meal symbolises unity as families gather around the table to share dishes like fish, dumplings, and chicken. These foods carry well-wishes for the coming year, such as prosperity with fish and happiness with sweet rice balls.

The act of preparing and sharing these meaningful meals strengthens familial bonds while embracing cultural traditions. Each dish adds an extra layer of joy to the celebrations, reinforcing the importance of family during this auspicious time.


Symbolic dishes like sweet rice balls and spring rolls are prepared to bring joy and happiness into the home during the Chinese New Year. Sweet rice balls, known as Tangyuan, symbolise family togetherness and completeness. Their round shape represents unity and harmony within the family. Spring rolls, with their golden colour and crispy texture, resemble gold bars, symbolising prosperity and wealth. The cultural significance of these lucky foods infuses joy and cheerfulness into every aspect of life, making the celebrations truly enriching for all.


Longevity noodles are an essential part of Chinese New Year celebrations, symbolising a long and prosperous life. The length of the noodles signifies longevity, so it’s customary not to cut or break them before eating. This tradition reflects the belief that consuming these unbroken strands will bring good health and a long life.

Serving and enjoying longevity noodles during this auspicious time highlights the desire for continued well-being and prosperity throughout the year. The careful selection of these foods conveys wishes for fortunate outcomes, with longevity being particularly valued in Chinese tradition.

By understanding the meanings behind these foods, we appreciate the depth of cultural beliefs and culinary traditions that make Chinese New Year a rich and meaningful celebration.

Other Traditional Foods and Their Symbolic Meanings

Beyond the well-known dishes, other traditional foods such as Lion’s Head Meatballs, shrimp, vegetables, and fruits hold significant symbolic meanings in Chinese New Year celebrations. Let’s delve deeper into these symbolic meanings.

Lion’s Head Meatballs

Lion’s Head Meatballs are cherished Chinese New Year food, symbolising family reunion and good fortune. These oversized pork meatballs, often containing water chestnuts or bamboo shoots for a crunchy texture, are typically served alongside leafy greens to represent wealth and prosperity.

The name “Lion’s Head” refers to the meatball’s shape, reminiscent of a lion’s mane, embodying strength, courage, and good luck for the coming year. This dish has been part of my family’s celebrations for generations, with each element holding symbolic meaning—from the round shape representing unity and wholeness to the bamboo shoots signifying resilience and growth. It’s truly a feast for both the stomach and spirit during this important time of year.


Shrimp is a staple Chinese New Year food, symbolising happiness and liveliness. Their curved shape resembles the symbol of longevity in Chinese culture, and the red colour of cooked shrimp signifies joy and celebration.

Popular dishes like stir-fried prawns with chilli sauce or honey walnut prawns are associated with prosperity and abundance. Shrimp represents a wish for many good things in life—wealth, happiness, and numerous descendants. Serving shrimp at the reunion dinner on New Year’s Eve conveys best wishes for the coming year, connecting directly with a desire for energy and vivaciousness throughout the new year.


Vegetables play an essential role in Chinese New Year foods, symbolising vitality, health, and growth. Consuming a variety of vegetables during this time is believed to bring good luck and abundance for the upcoming year. A popular vegetable dish is Buddha’s Delight or Luo Han Zai, which includes ingredients like tofu, carrots, cabbage, glass noodles, mushrooms, and bamboo shoots. This dish embodies the festival’s spirit with its rich symbolism and delectable flavours—perfect for celebrating

new beginnings and embracing prosperity. The significance of vegetables in Chinese New Year foods extends beyond nutrition, representing hope and renewal as we embark on another year full of promise.


Fruits hold significant symbolic meanings during Chinese New Year and are often given as gifts. Oranges, kumquats, tangerines, and pomelos are popular choices because their names sound like words for good luck and happiness in Chinese. These fruits symbolise prosperity and abundance, making them essential during the festive season. My family always displays a bowl of these fruits to bring joy and good fortune into our home.

In addition to citrus fruits, apples are also considered lucky. Their round shape represents unity and completeness within the family. We often include apples in our decorations and share them with friends and relatives as a gesture of goodwill for the year ahead. The vibrant colours of these fruits add a festive touch to our celebrations while embodying positive symbolism, which is important during this special time.

By incorporating these traditional foods into the Chinese New Year celebrations, we honour the rich cultural heritage and embrace the hopes and aspirations they represent for the coming year.

Chinese New Year Food Rituals

During Chinese New Year, families indulge in the Tray of Togetherness, sample Nian Gao for good luck, and savour an eight-course feast, each steeped in tradition and symbolic meaning.

Tray of Togetherness

The Tray of Togetherness is a traditional Chinese New Year item featuring an assortment of symbolic treats. It typically contains eight compartments, each representing a different auspicious meaning. Examples include candied lotus seeds for fertility and sweetened coconut for togetherness. The number 8 signifies good luck in Chinese culture, making the tray a focal point during this festive time.

More than just an ornate display, the Tray of Togetherness embodies sharing blessings and embracing tradition. Opening the tray with family or friends creates a sense of unity and joy as we explore its contents together. Each treat’s significance fosters conversations that deepen our appreciation for the cultural values embedded in these symbolic foods.

This cherished custom not only brings us closer but also enriches our celebrations by infusing them with meaningful connections and age-old traditions, truly embodying the spirit of togetherness.

Nian Gao Tasting

As mentioned earlier, Nian Gao, a sticky rice cake, is an essential part of Chinese New Year celebrations. Its name means “year high,” symbolising growth and progress in the coming year. The rich, sweet flavour signifies a prosperous and sweet future. Often steamed or deep-fried, this traditional cake is enjoyed with family and friends during the festive season.

Indulging in Nian Gao represents a delicious way to usher in prosperity and good luck for the coming year. The significance behind this symbolic food adds an extra layer of meaning to our gatherings, making every bite even more enjoyable. This ritual not only satisfies our taste buds but also conveys our hopes and aspirations for the year ahead.

Eating Eight Courses

Moving on from the delightful Nian Gao tasting, let’s explore the tradition of eating eight courses during the Chinese New Year. These eight lucky dishes are carefully selected to bring good fortune and signify abundance. Each course holds a special meaning, whether it’s wishing for prosperity or family togetherness. The number “eight” is considered extremely lucky in Chinese culture, symbolising wealth and good luck.

By indulging in these eight symbolic courses, we embrace the rich traditions and cultural significance that accompany this auspicious celebration. The custom of enjoying these eight traditional dishes during Chinese New Year not only brings joy but also represents hopes for a promising year ahead. From fish symbolising surplus and wealth to dumplings signifying prosperity and longevity, each course reflects important wishes for the coming year.

This culinary journey is not just about savouring delectable delicacies; it’s about honouring ancient beliefs while relishing every bite of these meaningful cuisines that hold the promise of good fortune.

Ultimately, Chinese New Year is a vibrant celebration steeped in tradition, and food plays a central role in these festivities. Each dish carries special wishes for the year ahead. For a taste of cultural exploration beyond Chinese New Year food, check out our website’s guide to traditional Egyptian food. If you’re interested in a broader perspective, explore our guide on the impact of colonialism on global food practices. Understanding these historical influences allows for a deeper appreciation for the rich tapestry of flavours enjoyed around the world today.

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